English. Урок 7. Наречие. Формы наречий

В английском языке, как и в русском, наречием называется часть речи, которая обозначает признак действия, состояния или качества.

По своей структуре наречия делятся на:

Простые, состоящие только из одного корня: Производные, в состав которых входят суффиксы и префиксы: Сложные, состоящие из нескольких корней: Составные, состоящие из нескольких слов:
now — сейчас well — хорошо there — там soon — скоро orally — устно slowly – медленно quietly – тихо backward — назад anyhow (any + how) — как-то everywhere — везде sometimes – иногда nowhere – никуда by all means — обязательно for ever – навсегда as far as — насколько at least – по крайней мере

По своему значению наречия делятся на:

Наречия времени Наречия места Наречия меры и степени Наречия образа действия Вопросительные наречия
today — сегодня soon — скоро already — уже never — никогда just – только что   here — здесь somewhere – где-то inside – внутри near — близко where – где much — много very — очень too – слишком almost – почти little — мало   well – хорошо fast – быстро slowly — медленно often — часто easily – легко how – как? when — когда? where – где? why – почему? how long – как долго?

В предложении наречия выполняют чаще всего функцию обстоятельства:

It is never too late to learn. (обстоятельство времени) — Учиться никогда не поздно.

Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

  1. Что такое наречие?
  2. Какие виды наречий существуют в английском языке?

Степени сравнения наречий

Некоторые наречия образа действия и времени имеют сравнительную и превосходную степень сравнения.

Степени сравнения односложных наречий образуются так же, как и степени сравнения  односложных прилагательных, т. е. при помощи прибавления к основе наречия суффикса -er в сравнительной степени и суффикса -est в превосходной степени:

late (поздно) fast (быстро) hard (усердно ) later faster harder latest fastest hardest

Наречия, образованные от прилагательных при помощи суффикса –ly, образуют при помощи слов more в сравнительной степени и most в превосходной степени:

necessarily  необходимо carefully тщательно bravely храбро more necessarily more carefully more bravely most necessarily most carefully most bravely

Степени сравнения наречий often – часто, quickly – быстро, slowly – медленно образуются обоими способами:

often quickly slowly oftener/ more often quicker/ more quickly slower/ more slowly oftenest/ most often quickest/ most quickly slowest/ most slowly

От некоторых наречий степени сравнения образуются путём изменения корневой гласной или основы слова. Их нужно запомнить:

well -хорошо better — лучше best — лучше всего

badly — плохо worse — хуже worst — хуже всего

little — мало less — менее, меньше least — меньше всего

much — много more — более, больше most — наиболее, больше всего

far — далеко further/ farther — дальше furthest/ farthest — дальше всего

Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

  1. Какие степени сравнения наречий существуют в английском языке?
  2. Как образуется сравнительная степень наречий?
  3. Как образуется превосходная степень односложных наречий?
  4. Как образуется сравнительная степень многосложных наречий?
  5. Как образуется превосходная степень многосложных наречий?

Практическое занятие

Наречие. Формы наречий

I. In the following sentences underline the adverbs and state their kind.

1. The girl sang sweetly.

2. What is he doing outside?

3. He practices cricket every day.

4. I look forward to hearing from you soon.

5. The old woman was walking slowly.

6. The kittens are playing there.

7. Children usually rush about.

8. The girls danced gracefully.

9. She has travelled everywhere.

II. Classify the adverbs in the following sentences.

1.         Kishore plays tennis well.

2.         She is too shy.

3.         He arrived quite early.

4.         When are you expecting them?

5.         Do you know the time when he wil arrive?

6.         He often comes here.

7.         He behaved rather foolishly.

8.         Why are you late?

9.         The reason why he was absent is not known.

10.       He ran fast to catch the bus.

11.       She goes there daily.

12.       Ramesh works very hard.

III. Underline the adverbs in the following sentences and state their kind.

1. I went to the market in the morning.

2. The dog sat lazily in the shade of the tree.

3. The man grumbled loudly while cleaning the table.

4. I often visit my grandparents.

5. It is extremely hot today.

6. Please wait patiently.

7. The technician fixed the problem easily.

8. They serve hot pan cakes there.

9. I am waiting here for my daughter.

10. He laughed merrily.

11. We will leave today.

12. She is standing outside.

IV. Find the adjective in the first sentence and fill the gap with the adverb.

  1. Joanne is happy. She smiles .
  2. The boy is loud. He shouts _________________________________
  3. Her English is fluent. She speaks English  _____________________
  4. Our mum was angry. She spoke to us _________________________
  5. My neighbour is a careless driver. He drives ___________________.
  6. The painter is awful. He paints _________________.
  7. Jim is a wonderful piano player. He plays the piano  ________________________.
  8. This girl is very quiet. She often sneaks out of the house _____________________.
  9. She is a good dancer. She dances really ________________.
  10. This exercise is simple. You _____________ have to put one word in each space.

V. Construct adverbs out of the adjectives.

  1. quiet     → 
  2. wild      → 
  3. whole   → 
  4. funny    → 
  5. good     → 

VI. Turn the underlined adjective into an adverb, and type the adverb in the space.

  1. Your English is perfect. You speak English .
  2. I am so healthy because I eat .
  3. Bob is a friendly boy. He greets everybody .
  4. My dad is an early bird, he gets up  every day.
  5. One question in the test was so difficult, I could only answer it .

VII. Choose the correct comparative form of the adverb.

  1. The little girl can shout (loudly)  than her big brother.
  2. She works (well)  than her collegues.
  3. In this picture, you are the one that smiles (happily)  of all.
  4. I cook (badly)  than he does.
  5. After ten years he loved his wife even (much)  than at the beginning of their relationship.

VIII. Complete the sentences with the best adverb. Not every adverb is needed.

slowly     carefully   beautifully      well        loudly        carelessly       easily       excitedly       finally      suddenly       quickly           quietly
  1. Come here ____________. You have to see this!
  2. We knew that she had got the job when we saw her _________ talking on the phone.
  3. He ______________ put the vase on the table. It fell to the floor.
  4. Sharon is throwing a party on Saturday. She ___________ finished her PhD.
  5. Let’s walk ________________. I don’t want to be the first one at the meeting.
  6. Alex _____________ put up the bookshelves. It was too difficult for me to do on my own.
  7. Everything happened so ______________. We had to move to California in less than a month.
  8. Why does he always have to talk so ____________. You can hear him in the next room!
  9. Although she speaks five languages, she did not do ___________ on the translation exam.
  10. I was so surprised. His new apartment was _____________ decorated.

IX. Complete the sentence using an adjective or adverb.

Example: beautiful (adjective) girl (noun) 

                 beautiful + ly = beautifully (adverb)

  1. He’s always in a rush. I don’t understand why he walks so quick/quickly.
  2. I prefer studying in the library. It’s always quiet/quietly.
  3. Michael happy/happily took the assistant job. He had been looking for a position all summer. 
  4. Marta dances beautiful/beautifully. She’s been taking ballet since she was five years old.
  5. They speak French very good/well. They lived in France for two years. 
  6. My neighbor always plays loud/loudly music on the weekends. It’s so annoying.
  7. Please be careful/carefully in the hallway. The walls have just been painted.
  8. Dan is very smart, but he is not a very good/well student.
  9. He reacted angry/angrily to the news. I have never seen him so upset.
  10. We didn’t complete/completely understand the teacher’s instructions. Most of us did not finish the assignment.

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